Nutritional Biotechnologies: Phytase – AS-627-WV


♪ (music) ♪ Aaron: Phytase is a nutritional biotechnology that has application in animal nutrition As well as environmental implications Phytase is an enzyme routinely added to commercial poultry and swine diets to breakdown Phytate into a usable form of the mineral, Phosphorus Generally speaking, 62%-80% of Phosphorus found in plant-based feed stuffs is in the form of Phytate Phytate is largely unavailable to be used by non-rheumatic animals such as poultry and swine as they have very little Phytase acitivity in their digestive tracts This is much less of a problem in rheumatics As Phytase is produced by bacteria in the rumen which is very efficient at degrading Phytate into usable forms of Phosphorus Phosphorus is a required mineral that has many physiological roles included but not limited to: maintenance of skeletal tissue, protein synthesis, efficiency of feed utilization, and fertility Phosophorus is also the third most expensive component of poultry and swine diets behind energy and protein Typically the nerve from poultry and swine contains Nitrogen and Phosphorus in a 1 to 1 ratio However, plants such as corn require nearly a 3 to 1 ratio of Nitrogen and Phosphorus for optimal growth Thus, if manure is applied to fully satisfy the Nitrogen needs of the plant Phosphorus will be overapplied This results in an overabundance of soil Phosphorus which can cause Eutrophication of surface water and eventually leeching into the ground water this can cause significant environmental concerns for livestock, wildlife, and human populations Phytate not only decreases absorption of Phosphorus It also reduces the digestive abilities of other minerals such as Calcium, Zinc, Magnesium, Sodium, and Copper Additionally Phytate is known to reduce Amino Acid digestibility by 3% to 16%, reduce dietary energy use by 8% in pigs, and reduce body weight gain and feed efficiency in broilers and pigs The addition of Phytase to poultry and swine diets improves the digestibility of many classes of nutrients A subsequent effect of this supplementation is that it also reduces the amount of inorganic Phosphorus that must be used, this allows for the replacement with other feed stuffs which increases the overall nutriental quality of the diet formulation historically, we’ve known about Phytase as an enzyme since the late 1800’s It didn’t become a commercial product until roughly the early 1990’s When they first developed an inorganic Phosphorus prices were fairly low, so that a Pytase dosage essentailly was equivalent to what the comperable Phosphorus cost was in the diet for inorganic Phosphorus roughly that was about .1% of Phosphorus Since, to give you perspective of where Phosphorus prices have changed since then Roughly in 2000, if we were looking at Phosphate fertilizer prices, it was roughly about 200-225 dollars per ton By 2012, that is increased to nearly 675 dollars per ton So, we’ve really increased the amount of Phosphorus costs over that period of time and therefore Phytase and its application has become much greater in use of embolysis Roughly today in the U.S. if we look at swine and pork embolysis roughly about 95%-99% of those diets contain some form of Phytase um and a lot of companies are looking at increasing the amount of enzymes utilized in those diets The first commercially available forms of Phytase were derived from intentionally selected fungi currently most are developed using recumbent DNA technology In this process, a bacterial Phytase gene is inserted into yeast for mass production of the enzyme Scientifically over the years, we are probably looking at today, Roughly about a third generation of Phytase being utilized versus what first came on the market in the early 1900’s Today the third generation of Phytase is essentially a uh genetically inserted product typically from an ecola Phytase gene into a yeast for its production purposes A lot of science has gone into production of the Phytase and today, companies are looking at single Amino Acid modifacations to improve the characteristics of those Phytases predominately looking at uh Heat tolerance, so that enzyme can be more thermal stable, as it goes through the feed manufacturing process, particularly through Elling Research with Phytase is taking on a new generation I mentioned earlier that companies now are looking at single amino acid mutations on to the Phytase To make it have more interesting characteristics to make it more thermal stable, to increase the binding efficiency, and efficiency to which that Phosphorus is actually liberated from the Phytate molecule Some of the research that we’re doing here at the university really is looked at how Phytate, the substrate to which the enzyme actually works upon negatively effects the digestive tract to the animal And therefore, when we look at some of these new generation of Phytases they actually alleviate some of that anti-nutrient effect that some of that Phytate molecule has on the animal itself Phytase is a nutritional biotechnology it is commonly added to swine and poultry diets This enzyme breaks down Phytate into a usable form of the mineral form, Phosphorus It is a required mineral for the animal Thus, the addition of Phytase enhances the ability of the animal to meet its Phosphorus requirement Which is an expensive feed additive Phytase also improves the digestibility of many other classes of nutrients Additionally, the addition of Phytase decreases the amount of Phosphorus excreeted by the animal thus, potentially decreases the environmental impact of excess Phosphorus This benefits livestock, wildlife, and human populations ♪ (music) ♪ This presentation was a production of the Animal Sciences Department at Purdue University ♪ (music) ♪

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