• LeafsofRain

    I'm curious really, can you get DNA from a piece of hair? and create a clone?

  • bilal khan


  • Your Girl Jadyn!


  • Milwaukee Atheists


  • Faizan Khan

    What Software Is Being Used In This Presentation ?

  • Jan Zimak

    Please make a video about isothermal assembly methods (such as Gibson Assembly). These are the dominant methods being used currently.

  • Darren Ng

    how about electro-shocking the bacteria?

  • Jett Burns

    That's amazing, to think we can do this inside cells using biochemistry to get what we want! Keep them coming Sal, loving these new (micro)bio vids.

  • Raigh DarkHawk

    I find it really amazing that we can do this. However, a part of me wonders about the ethical considerations. Also, another part of me wonders if this is part of the reason why we have diseases that are resistant to antibacterials, which make them much harder to treat. Considering that some of these diseases are both highly contagious AND deadly if not treated (as is the case with certain strands of Tuberculosis) this is not a good combination to have randomly floating around out there, such as we do now have.

  • Holly Stoltzfus

    Which video describes the extraction of desired product? Insulin, for instance?


    closer but still not able to explain completely….how will we all of sudden will introduce antibiotic resistance gene in vector…won't it too will take process of colony formation selection of transformant same as that of our gene of interest…so by your video concept before clearing give rise to another doubt

  • vaniteen

    Very good teacher

  • Ann Kwon

    Why does some cells have plasmids when they already have chromosomes??

  • Aya Lazizi

    Great video…. the heat shock part made my very ill boy laugh out loud! thanks a lot!

  • Varisha

    Best explanation of Recombinant DNA

  • allycat920

    I am forever grateful to you because you are the ONLY REASON why I will pass my exam. Thank you thank you thank you!!! <3

  • Tari Mandeliko

    this is amazing. i have tried so hard to understand this (i have watched other videos, read an excerpt from a textbook etc.) and now i finally get it. thank you khan academy

  • siddharth nath

    thnq ew sir…..

  • UNM CEOPComplab

    Great video, Khan Academy never fails to clear up difficult topics/processes.

  • Sonu Sharma

    if the bacteria alredy have the plasmid then how it willl take it…

  • L

    Hi, just wanna ask. How do I cut two given restriction enzymes?

  • Jams

    so boring, am I right guys???

  • Cuda Danger Baird

    So were intentionally making bacteria antibiotic resistant? Seems like if there is any more serious bacteria in the plate or initial sample thats not good…

  • PIER


  • Masarrat Mujeeb

    Suppose we link our gene of interest to BamH I. Then grow the bacteria in ampicillin medium to distinguish between the transformants and non transformants . The recombinant bacteria with our gene of interest will die, how will we be able to use the dead bacterium?

  • Swechha Shrestha

    That was a wonderful explanation. Thank you!!

  • BuzzyTube '

    Thank you so much

  • Ado Sar

    why are plasmids used in recombinant dna technology must have the ability to duplicate indepedently from the host cell? thx in advandance

  • Md. Polash Khan

    Great video.

    what software is used to prepare such video ?

  • Barry Litser

    great video, thanks. But i have a question: How can we know that the plasmid does contain the sequence of interest and not another sequence that happens to use the same restriction enzyme?

  • Joshua Plunto

    Man, I haven't seen this stuff in years….almost decadeS. I used to do this in college ….and didn't remember specifics. This brought it all back. Thank you.

  • Taguro 999

    Why is recombinant dna important?

  • Simsim X

    You saved my life

  • Blue chrystal

    I wish I could repay you, I understand every time.

  • Anshika Kulshrestha

    I could totally understand what you said @3:08.😂😂 Anyways great video, thanks a lot.

  • Samuel Braithwaite

    this is good

  • shiz miz

    Isn't the replication of the plasmid independent from the replication of the bacterial DNA ? i.e isn't the plasmid capable of auto-replication ?

  • my dream

    Is there any videos about methods used to obtain DNA sequence?

  • D.S. van Dam

    I was wondering the following, this video tells me that DNA is taken from one organism and put into another organism's plasmid so that that organism can go and create a desired protein. My question is then, does the bacteria know how to splice the introns and exons when it's creating the desired protein. Much more logical to me would be that they take ripe mRNA, (already spliced correctly) reverse transcript that and put it in the plasmid, since bacteria don't have introns and exons.

  • Rossanghela Aguirre

    Explicas de lo mejor , se me quedó todo!!! gracias .

  • Lochan Ramu Dayalan

    Wait I always thought E. Coli got broken down by the heat in the PCR machine

  • Tommy Li

    Mutations are a big danger. Recombiant DNA vaccines may cause your cells to mutate. Oregano oil can kill virus and bacteria. And they cannot develop immunity like antibiotics. Why can't they use this oil some how internally when there is an outbreak. I use the oil when I have a sore throat. And oil knocks it right out.

  • star bbw

    Thank you!!

  • B

    I live for Sal's mistakes in his videos; so funny. "…and this isn't fully understood how the sheet hock…" Waiting for the bloopers video.

  • Caroline Copeland

    How do the proteins encoded by the new plasmid get expressed?

  • Farzana Miah

    Thank you so much. I've got one question, how do you know the plasmid with the antibiotic resistant gene will take up the gene of interest and not the other plasmid without the antibiotic resistant gene?

  • Tafadzwa Soko

    I have a question ,you wish to clone the gene for enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) into
    pGEM3z that will be translated from 171bp to 1493bp. using the checklist below how one can draw
    a vector map with eGFP insert included.
    Include the following details:
    – Vector name
    – Insert size
    – Restriction enzyme (s) and location
    – Direction of replication
    – Selection agent(s)
    – Promoter region

    And with reference to the eGFP in your vector, describe the cloning strategy that proves
    that genes can be moved between species.

  • Sanjay Lal

    Superb!! Very nice, simple explanation.

  • Govind Menon

    How do you know that the gene of importance has resistance to antibiotics

  • Manuela Nimoh

    The heat shock is happening through CaCl2, which is counteracting the electrostatic repulsion between plasmid DNA the bacterial cellular membrane ( liposaccharide layer), mostly E.Coli as it is most competent bacteriathan for these procedures.

  • MJ Bague

    Wait uhmm. if you mix an antibiotic into the plasmic and get the bacteria to swallow it. won't the bacteria die? or some survives?

  • saiwashburn

    Love the vids. Can you record at just a slightly higher volume please?

  • Daisy Rivera

    Thank you! I was reading my textbook and lecture notes, but still couldn’t understand it. This video explained everything perfectly 👌

  • Martin Coronado

    This video was interesting and very well explained.

  • Martin Luther King Jr.


  • boooo468

    How do you know which restriction enzymes to use? How did you find out the sequence at both ends of the gene in the first place?

  • boooo468

    How do you know if the plasmids taken up by the bacteria also contained the gene of interest? Couldn't some of the bacteria take up plasmids that gave them antibiotic resistance but did not include the gene of interest?

  • Omnia Eid

    Best explanation of Recombinant DNA

  • Yes i am k

    Thank you so much for this

  • car ew


  • Angelo Barrientos

    can the "shock" come from a microcentrifuge?

  • Shubham Sourabh

    Thank you so much! 🙂

  • Jase

    I wish my professor did the same thing to their lectures, would save me time reading textbooks

  • jyothsna .M

    Thank you so much

  • Hadeer Rashad

    Thank you so much for making this video!!!!

  • Anjeel Kotwal

    That's the exact way of teaching….loved it

  • Mohamed Sami

    Thank youuu !!!!

  • B T

    This translates well in microbiology but how does an antibiotic resistant ecoli plasmid translate to animal species? You go into insulin but how does that work? Is it because we have altered the plasmid DNA which would render any ecoli effects useless?

  • 서승교

    I can't sure that you respond to me, but I have a question. Is there any checking process that we can check the plasmid has a gene that we want to clone between 'Paste process' and 'Inserting the plasmid to the e.coli' ?

  • Eniel Rolon

    how is he so smooth with the mouse?

  • Mahendra Hosalli

    Tq so much for your kind information

  • M A N A


  • Athil Althaf

    how do we know that the bacterial colony with the desired product only have the antibiotic resistance?

  • Aileni Irina

    Sir, you are my favourite teacher on the Khan Academy platform. Great job !!! You helped me a lot during my studies

  • Vikas Kumar

    Hindi me explain kiya Kare

  • Nyawira Waithaka

    Fascinating stuff. Thank you!

  • Мухаммед Саад

    You are awesome really, very clear and good video, thank you so much, we will wait for more videos

  • Yadi Supriadi

    I'm 22. But can GOM work on whatever ages we are? or it only works for the embryo? haha.. as an example in my age 22, can I get blue eyes?

  • Philip Cantos

    Best voice and teacher of Khan Academy! Made me pass my math exam!

  • maria paz

    Thanks you have helped 😊

  • p-h chan

    The drawing is great!

  • Lucinda Haasbroek

    Thank you thank you thank you

  • Noobcake

    why do we need DNA cloning this way when we can use PCR?

  • Vah Nee

    ive struggled so much to understand this topic in my first language lol and now i tried to it in english and your video was so helpful (and pretty) thank yaa

  • Bhuvaneswaran V

    How u're smooth with the mouse

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