CELL Structure and Function Related Disorders Eukaryotic Cell Prokaryotic Cell Biochemistry  Biology

CELL Structure and Function Related Disorders Eukaryotic Cell Prokaryotic Cell Biochemistry Biology


In this lecture. i am going to talk about
the human cell, organelles and its functions and related disorder. The cell is the structural and functional
unit of life. but the first thing first. there are 2 types
of cells. Prokaryotic cell and Eukaryotic cell the main difference between them is small
prokaryotes lack a well-defined nucleus and possess relatively simple structure. these
include various bacteria. while large eukaryotes possess a well-defined nucleus and are more
complex in their structure and function. Plants and animals or human composed of eukaryotic
cell. The plant cell differs from animal cell by
cellulose made rigid cell wall and chloroplast. let’s talk about Human cell and each organelle.
the cell consists of well-defined subcellular organelles let’s start with nucleus. nucleus is the largest
cellular organelle surrounded by a double membrane nuclear envelop. Nucleus contain
DNA, the repository of genetic information. DNA in association with basic proteins called
histone, form nucleosomes which, in turn, make up the chromosomes. the nucleus of the
eukaryotic cell contains a dense body known as nucleolus it is reach in RNA, ribosomal
RNA. the ground material of the nucleus is referred as nucleoplasm .it is rich in enzymes
DNA polymerases and RNA polymerase. now what is Hutchinson Gilford progeria syndrome? it is a condition of aging begin at birth.
Occur as a result of distortion of nuclear envelope due to accumulation of abnormal protein
called Lamina A. As we know the nucleus is surrounded by double
membrane nuclear envelop. the outer membrane continues with the membranes of endoplasmic
reticulum.at certain interval, the two nuclear membrane have nuclear pores which permit the
free passage of the products synthesized in the nucleus into the surrounding cytoplasm. there are two types of endoplasmic reticulum.
rough endoplasmic reticulum and the smooth endoplasmic reticulum. rough endoplasmic reticulum has a granular
appearance due to ribosomes attach to it. ribosomes are factories of protein biosynthesis.
During the process of fraction, rough ER is disrupted to form small vesicles known as
microsomes. smooth endoplasmic reticulum does not contain
ribosome. it is involved in the synthesis of lipids and metabolism of drugs, besides
supplying ca for the cellular function. Golgi apparatus it is a unique cluster of
membrane vesicle known as dictyosomes. the newly synthesis protein handed over to the
Golgi apparatus which catalase addition of carbohydrates, lipid to the protein. certain
proteins and enzymes are enclosed in membrane vesicles of Golgi apparatus and secreted from
the cell after the appropriate signals .example of this digestive enzymes of pancreas. Golgi
apparatus also involved in the membrane synthesis for the formation of intra cellular organelles
like lysosomes, peroxisomes. Lysosomes. lysosomes are spherical vesicle
enveloped by a single membrane. function of lysosomes is digestion of cellular substance
like protein, lipids, carbohydrate and nucleic acid. Lysosome enzyme characterizes as hydrolase
these include the enzymes alfa-glycosidase, cathepsins, lipase, ribonucleases. The lysosomal
enzymes are responsible for maintaining the cellular compounds in a dynamic state by their
degradation and recycling. Degraded leave lysosome usually by diffusion, or reutilization
by the cell. certain residual products, rich in lipids and proteins collectively known
as lipofuscin. lipofuscin is age pigment implicated in aging process. as the cell dies the lysosomes
rupture and release hydrolytic enzymes that results in post-mortem autolysis. the leakage
of lysosomal enzymes into the cell degrades several functional macromolecules and it’s
may lead to certain disorders example arthritis, muscle disorder, allergic disorders What is Inclusion cell disease or mucolipidosis? it is a lysosomal storage disease characterize
by coarse facial feature, skeletal abnormality and mental retardation due to the absence
of certain hydrolase in lysosomes. peroxisomes also known as microbodies are
a single membrane cellular body. they are spherical and oval shape. peroxisome contain
the enzyme catalase. catalase protects the cell from the toxic effects of h2o2 by converting
it to h2o and o2 . peroxisomes are also involved in the oxidation of long chain fatty acids
and synthesis of plasmalogens and glycolipids. what is peroxisome biogenesis disorders? PBDs are developmental brain disorders that
also result in skeletal and craniofacial dysmorphism, liver dysfunction, progressive sensorineural
hearing loss, and retinopathy. due to an increased level of very long chain fatty acids and decreased
concentration of plasmalogens. severe form of pbds is Zellweger syndrome condition characterize
by the absence of functional peroxisomes. the mitochondria or power house of cell are
the center of energy metabolism. mitochondria are rod like or filamentous bodies and composed
of double membrane system. the outer membrane is smooth and completely envelope the organelle.
the inner membrane is folded to form cristae which occupies larger surface area. the component
of electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation are buried in the inner mitochondrial
membrane. Internal chamber of mitochondria is refers as matrix or mitosol. this matrix contains several enzymes concerned
with the energy metabolism of carbohydrate, lipids and amino acids also participate in
the synthesis of heme and urea. Matrix also contains circular mitochondrial double stranded
DNA, RNA and ribosomes. mitochondria are the principle procedure of ATP which is exported
to all parts of the cell to provide energy. the cellular ground matrix also referred as
cytosol is composed of a network of protein filaments, the cytoskeleton. cytoplasmic filament
are of three types microtubule, actin filament and intermediate filament. vacuoles function of vaculoes is temporary
storage the eukaryotic cells performs a wide range
of complex functions in a well-coordinated and integrated fashion. what is apoptosis? apoptosis is the process of programmed cell
death or cell suicide. before leaving I want you to subscribe to
my channel for more video like this .

Comments

(1 Comment)

  • Yesha Desai

    Nice one 👌👍

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