Acid Base Balance, Animation.

Acid Base Balance, Animation.

pH is an indicator of acidity. The body’s blood pH is strictly regulated
within a narrow range between 7.35 and 7.45. This is because even a minor change in acidity
may have devastating effects on protein stability and biochemical processes. Normal cellular metabolism constantly produces
and excretes carbon dioxide into the blood. Carbon dioxide combines with water to make
carbonic acid which dissociates into hydrogen ions and bicarbonate. This is an equilibrium, meaning all the components
of the left and right sides co-exist at all times, and the concentration of any component
is determined by that of others at any given moment. The rule of thumb is: an increase in concentration
of ANY component on ONE side will shift the equation to the OTHER side, leading to INCREASED
concentrations of all components on THAT side, and vice versa. This equilibrium is central to understand
acid-base regulation. CONTINUED carbon dioxide production by all
cells of the body drives the equilibrium to the right to generate more hydrogen ions. Because pH is basically a function of hydrogen
ion concentration, more hydrogen means higher acidity and lower pH. Normal metabolism, therefore, constantly makes
the blood more acidic. The body must react to keep the blood pH within
the normal limits. This is achieved by 2 mechanisms:
– Elimination of carbon dioxide through exhalation. The amount of carbon dioxide exhaled by the
lungs is regulated in response to changes in acidity. A decrease in pH is sensed by central or arterial
chemoreceptors and leads to deeper, faster breathing; more carbon dioxide is exhaled,
less hydrogen is made, blood acidity decreases and blood pH returns to normal. Pulmonary regulation is fast, usually effective
within minutes to hours. – Excretion of hydrogen ions and reabsorption
of bicarbonate through the kidneys. The kidneys control blood pH by adjusting
the amount of excreted acids and reabsorbed bicarbonate. Renal regulation is slower; it usually takes
days to respond to pH disturbances. Although all of the plasma bicarbonate is
filtered in the glomerulus during the first step of urine formation, virtually ALL of
it is REabsorbed BACK into the blood. Most of this reabsorption happens in the proximal
tubule. The amount of reabsorbed bicarbonate in the
proximal tubule is regulated, via a number of mechanisms, in response to changes in blood
pH. It increases during acid loads and decreases
during alkali loads. While the proximal tubule basically RETURNS
FILTERED bicarbonate back to the blood, the downstream collecting duct generates NEW bicarbonate
by ACTIVELY SECRETING acids. As protons are depleted from the distal tubular
cells, the equation shifts to the right, producing MORE bicarbonate which then exits into the
blood. Hydrogen ions secreted into the lumen combine
with urinary buffers, mainly filtered phosphate, and ammonia, to be excreted in urine. The ammonia buffering system is particularly
important because unlike phosphate, which is filtered in FIXED amounts from the plasma
and can be depleted during high acid loads, ammonia production is regulated in response
to changes in acidity and its concentration may increase several folds when necessary. Blood pH is the main regulator of acid excretion,
but potassium, chloride concentrations and several hormones also play important roles. Pathologic changes may cause acid-base disturbances. Acidosis refers to a process that causes increased
acidity, while alkalosis refers to one that causes increased alkalinity. It’s not uncommon for a patient to have
several processes going on at once, some of them in opposite directions. The resulting plasma pH may be normal; too
acidic, called acidemia; or too basic, called alkalemia. Acidosis may result from INadequate function
of the lungs which causes arterial carbon dioxide to accumulate. This is RESPIRATORY acidosis. On the other hand, METABOLIC acidosis may
result from excessive production of metabolic acids, DEcreased ability of the kidneys to
excrete acids, ingestion of acids, or loss of alkali. Metabolic acidosis is characterized by primary
DEcrease in plasma bicarbonate. Alkalosis can also be either respiratory or
metabolic. Respiratory alkalosis is caused by INcreased
ventilation resulting in excessive exhalation of carbon dioxide. Metabolic alkalosis can result from excess
loss of acids through the kidneys or gastrointestinal tract, bicarbonate retention, or ingestion
of alkali. Metabolic alkalosis is characterized by primary
increase in plasma bicarbonate.



  • Minh Hoàng VLOG

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  • Ahmed Phantom

    Thanks for this simple explanation …… keep going 💪💪

  • zainab shehata

    Thankyou so much

  • Haticha Eisenberg

    I really liked your explanation of acid-base, Can you please explain about endocrine and renal topics? Thank you so much

  • Sathish Kumar

    Stress urinary incontinence

  • Karthik Karthik

    Under rated YouTube channel. Simple n crystal clear explanations. 😍😍

  • Dr. Mag

    Nice video, but there is a mistake. Excess CO2 is regulated by losing H+ and not by generating more H+.

  • sayed rady

    Thank you

  • Pradeep Reddy

    can you please make a video about Cryoglobinemia.

  • Dina Elfeki

    thank you

  • Gregory R.H.

    Excellent work! Thank you.

  • Alila Medical Media

    Help us make more videos like this! Support us on Patreon and get FREE downloads and other great rewards:
    Thank you so much!

  • pavan raavi

    in respiratory acidosis topic …when co2 accululates….h+ and hco3 both increase right??so how come acidosis occurs when bicarbonate levels also rise?

  • Zaiba Shaik

    Please explain it in simple english

  • vikie chauhan

    Very good way of spreading knowledge . Well done guys !

  • Shaker Reddy

    Shekar reddy

  • Perdina Sidika

    Thank you

  • Surely Savvy

    Great job!!!! Loved the visuals. Please do more!

  • nkhan247

    Very well explained

  • Pender Chovwe

    Many thanks

  • Abdulsalam Munana

    Great lecture I would to discuss for me to transport across cell membrane

  • pragadeesh murugesan

    Thank you so much team, this topic was troubling me for months… Heartfelt thanks to all of your sincere efforts!!!! In making knowledge worthy videos, can't express my gratitude to you guys, kudos!!!, with love!!!

  • Vishnu Nandrale

    No words are enough too thank u for explaining this topic so nicely ,we all receive blessing of all medicos around the word to enhance there knowledge and making the basics of medical field so easy to understand
    Thanks 🙏🏻😊💕

  • Jacob

    thank God, someone finally said it.

  • Johnny Apple

    I take ap chemistry and im so surprised and happy to understand this video lol

  • haya noor

    Diabetes complication??

  • zohra sehgal

    please make detailed video on lung mechanics and also CNS

  • drcssundaram1976

    Very clear illustration !

  • val val

    does ph relate to caner?

  • اذياب السريسي

    Thanks 😊

  • MM

    excellent video

  • Benedito R Rodrigues


  • Sheila Roy

    First time in my life I understood this topic.Thank you very much

  • Estudiaconmigo Medicina


  • Sindhu Polukonda

    Superb explanation

  • Patty J. Ayers

    Excellent, thank you!


    Please explain reproduction system

  • Elmo7trfen zyad

    thank you

  • Cιρhξr

    Gr.9 🙁 lol

  • Laveena Lavi

    Thanks a lot… I understood the topic so easily in 5 min…. Its troubling me… 🙏🙏🙏

  • Natalia

    The third mechanism, hydrogen – potassium exchange in cells, is also worth to mention

  • Nurul Huda

    Topic on atom, molecule and compoud

  • quan chess

    This was amazing!

  • hazy


  • Sam Ma-Brook

    Hi there if I may suggest some topics to talk about like :
    Genetic disorders
    Endocrine abnormalities
    Autistic spectrum disorder

  • V P

    For many years I have tried to learn this topic, and I have never really understood it, until now! So easy! At last 🙂 Thank you very much! Great presentation

  • Shijin Philip


  • cletus mitonga

    Thank you so much for the great promotion exam in Biochemistry is made easy now.

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