9.2 Vitamins: Vitamin D

9.2 Vitamins: Vitamin D


– WELCOME TO THE SECOND SECTION
ON VITAMINS. THIS SECTION’S GOING TO BE
COVERING VITAMIN D. WE’RE GOING TO START WITH THE FUNCTIONS
OR THE ROLES OF VITAMIN D. AND THE MAIN FUNCTIONS
ARE REGULATION OF BLOOD CALCIUM. OUR BODY KEEPS CALCIUM WITHIN THE BLOODSTREAM
AT A VERY TIGHT LEVEL. AND WHAT VITAMIN D IS
IT HELPS REGULATE IT, BUT MOSTLY WE THINK OF IT
AS HELPING IN THE ABSORPTION OF CALCIUM FROM THE INTESTINES
INTO THE BLOODSTREAM. ALSO HELPS US REGULATION
OF PHOSPHORUS AND, AND I JUST MENTIONED,
RAISING BLOOD CALCIUM LEVELS, DOING THIS BY INCREASING
THE ABSORPTION. THE MAIN CONDITION IN VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY
HAPPENS IN CHILDREN. AND IT’S A SOFTENING OF BONES. AND YOU CAN SEE IN THIS IMAGE
HERE HOW THE LEGS ARE– THESE BONES ARE BONY. THEY’RE NOT FRACTURING OR
BREAKING, THEY’RE SOFTENING. THEY’RE SO SOFT THEY
CAN’T HOLD THE SUPPORT, THE WEIGHT OF THE PERSON, IN THIS CASE A CHILD
THAT’S TO BE SUPPORT. SO THIS IS A SOFTENING OF THE
BONES AND IT’S CALLED RICKETS. THIS OCCURS IN CHILDREN. MOSTLY IT’S GOING TO
OCCUR IN CHILDREN DO NOT RECEIVE ANY SUNLIGHT. SO THEY’RE GOING TO
BE IN THE VERY, VERY NORTHERN AREAS
IN SAY ALASKA OR SOME OF THE
SCANDINAVIAN COUNTRIES. AND THEY CAN BE
SUSCEPTIBLE TO RICKETS. IN ADULTS THIS CONDITION
IS CALLED OSTEOMALACIA, BUT IT’S NOT NEARLY AS COMMON. SO RICKETS IS GOING TO
BE IN CHILDREN, OSTEOMALACIA IN ADULTS. ONE THING I WANT TO POINT OUT
IS IN RECENT YEARS– MEAN IT STARTED DECADES
AGO BUT IN THE MORE RECENT YEARS AS WE
COME MORE WELL KNOWN AND MORE MAINSTREAMED
THAT VITAMIN HAS MANY, MANY MORE ROLES THAN
JUST CALCIUM REGULATION. AND THESE ARE JUST
A PARTIAL LIST, AN INCOMPLETE LIST OF
ALL THE CONDITIONS THAT A VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY
OR INSUFFICIENCY MAYBE IS NOT TOO SEVERE
THAT CAN RESULT IN. SO CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE,
CANCER, COGNITIVE DISORDERS,
ASTHMA, DIABETES, MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS,
HYPERTENSION, JUST A PARTIAL LIST. AND ONE OF THE REASONS IS
THAT VITAMIN D WILL BIND TO SMALL AREAS OF DNA AND
IT INITIATES THIS CASCADE MOLECULAR INTERACTIONS,
AND THIS IMPACTS GENES. AND OF COURSE GENES
DRIVE EVERYTHING AND THEY’VE FOUND OUT THAT
ARE MORE THAN 50 GENES AND TISSUES THROUGHOUT THE
BODY THAT ARE KNOWN TO BE REGULATED BY THE ACTIVE FORM
OF VITAMIN D. IN ADDITION, VITAMIN D HAS A ROLE
INTO WHICH THE DEGREE IN WHICH CELLS WILL
ACTUALLY CHANGE FROM A LESS SPECIFIC CELLS
TO MORE SPECIFIC CELLS. AND WHAT I MEAN IS THERE CAN
BE A GENERALIZE CELL THAT COULD HAVE ANY NUMBER OF FUNCTIONS BUT
WHAT’S CALLED DIFFERENTIATION, AND YOU DON’T NEED
TO KNOW THAT TERM, BUT YOU SHOULD KNOW THAT IT
REALLY HELPS IN THAT SPECIFICITY OR THAT ONE GENERAL CELL
BECOMING A VERY SPECIFIC CELL. AND THAT’S VERY IMPORTANT FOR
ALL CELLS THROUGHOUT THE BODY. VITAMIN D TOXICITY IS NOT AS COMMON AS WE USED
TO THINK IT WAS, AS I MENTIONED IN
THE LAST LECTURE. BUT IT STILL CAN OCCUR,
AND I’LL ACTUALLY GET INTO IT WHEN WE START TALKING ABOUT
VITAMIN K THAT HOW THESE TWO VITAMINS INTERACT AND CAN
RESULT IN SOME OF THE TOXICITY THAT WE SEE WITH VITAMIN D.
WHAT IT USUALLY RESULTS IN IF YOU THINK ABOUT THE FUNCTION
OF VITAMIN D WHICH IS TO– I MEAN IT REGULATES
BLOOD CALCIUM BUT IT REALLY ENHANCES THE
ABSORPTION OF CALCIUM FROM THE INTESTINES
INTO THE BLOODSTREAM, JUST BRINGING CALCIUM
INTO THE BLOODSTREAM. BUT IF YOU HAVE
TOO MUCH VITAMIN D THEN YOU CAN GET
TOO MUCH CALCIUM. IN ADDITION, IT’S NOT GOING TO NECESSARILY BE IN
THE RIGHT SPOT. AND WE’D LOVE TO HAVE MORE
CALCIUM IN THE BONES, RIGHT. WELL, IF YOU GET TOO MUCH
CALCIUM AND IT DOESN’T KNOW WHERE TO GO IT’S GOING TO
DEPOSIT IN OTHER AREAS, USUALLY IT’S SOFT
TISSUE CALCIFICATION. HERE THIS IS A BONE,
AND THIS IS A BONE HERE, THIS IS IN THE SHOULDER,
THE HUMERUS, AND THE CLAVICLE. WHEN WE LOOK INTO THE
TENDON AREAS OR WITHIN THE LIGAMENTS YOU CAN
GET THESE CALCIFICATIONS, CALCIUM ACTUALLY
DEPOSITING IN THOSE AREAS. NOW, THIS IS JUST AN ARTERY
HERE AND CALCIUM CAN DEPOSIT IN THE ARTERIES THAT
CONTRIBUTES TO SOMETHING CALLED ARTERIOSCLEROSIS,
WHICH WE’LL LEARN ABOUT. AND THEN IN THE HEART,
SO THIS IS AORTIC STENOSIS. YOU DON’T NEED TO KNOW
THAT TERM BUT IN THE HEART, THE VALVES IN THE HEART
CAN BECOME CALCIFIED, AND THERE ARE NOT [INAUDIBLE]
FUNCTION AS PROPERLY. SO THESE ARE THE
PROBLEMS THAT COULD HAPPEN WITH VITAMIN D TOXICITY. BUT DO KEEP IN MIND THAT
IT’S NOT THAT COMMON AND VITAMIN A TOXICITY IS ACTUALLY
MORE COMMON JUST BECAUSE OF THE FORTIFICATION AND
SUPPLEMENTATION COMBINATION. IT ALL RHYMES FOR
SOME STRANGE REASON. SO WHERE DO WE GET VITAMIN D? WELL, SUNSHINE IS
THE BEST SOURCE. THE PROBLEM IS THAT MOST PEOPLE
LIVE IN AN AREA WHERE YOU’RE NOT GOING TO GET ENOUGH SUN NO
MATTER HOW MUCH YOU’RE OUTSIDE. DOESN’T MATTER IF YOU’RE
RUNNING NECKED ALL DAY, YOU ARE NOT GOING TO GET ENOUGH SUN JUST BECAUSE OF
THE SUN ANGLE. SO IF YOU LIVE IN FLORIDA, YOU LIVE IN THE BAHAMAS,
YOU’RE ON THE CARIBBEAN, LIVE IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA
YOU HAVE A CHANCE OF GETTING ENOUGH VITAMIN D. IF YOU LIVE
IN HUMBOLDT COUNTY YOUR CHANCES OF GETTING VITAMIN D FROM
THE SUN ARE REALLY SMALL. IN ADDITION TO THE SUN ANGLE, ESPECIALLY DURING
THE WINTER MONTHS, YOU ALSO HAVE TO FIGHT
WITH FOG, RIGHT. AND IN SOME AREAS,
SAY IN L.A., THEY MIGHT HAVE SO MUCH SMOG THAT IT ACTUALLY
CAN BE A PROBLEM. BUT THE GENERAL RULE OF
SAYING ABOUT 15-20 MINUTES OUTSIDE PER DAY ON AVERAGE
ESPECIALLY IN THE SUMMER IN USUALLY IN THE
10:00-2:00 RANGE, MAYBE 10:00-4:00 IN
SHORTS AND T-SHIRT. NOW, OF COURSE YOU’RE NOT
GOING TO DO THAT IN MANY PLACES, LET’S SAY BOSTON OR
CHICAGO IN THE WINTER TIME, AND EVEN THEN THE
SUN ANGLE’S TOO LOW. SO IN THAT CASE YOU REALLY
HAVE TO GET IT FROM FOOD SOURCES WHICH IS DIFFICULT OR YOU MAY
ACTUALLY HAVE TO SUPPLEMENT. AND REMEMBER I HAVE
BEEN A VERY STRONG ADVOCATE OF GETTING ALL
OF YOUR VITAMIN MINERAL, VITAMIN NUTRIENTS,
ALL OF YOUR NUTRIENTS FROM FOOD. THIS IS ONE CASE THAT
IF VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY AND INSUFFICIENCY HAS
BECOME VERY COMMON, AND YOU MIGHT GET SOMETHING
YOU HAVE TO SUPPLEMENT. NOW, WHAT ARE THE FOOD SOURCES? COULD YOU GET IT FROM FOOD? WELL, YEAH, SEAFOOD
SALMON IS A GOOD SOURCE. NOT EVERYONE HAS ACCESS TO
FISH OR CAN AFFORD FISH, YOU KNOW, A FEW TIMES A WEEK. FORTIFIED MILK, SO WE HAVE VITAMIN A AND D
ARE USUALLY FORTIFIED IN MILK. SO THAT’S WHERE A LOT OF PEOPLE
GET THEIR VITAMIN D. EGG YOLK IS ALSO A SOURCE OF VITAMIN D.
AND THEN A RADIATED MUSHROOM, AND THAT SOUNDS HORRIBLE. WHAT’S IN IT THAT RADIATED? BUT REALLY THEY’RE PUTTING
MUSHROOMS AND THEY GET UV LIGHT, AND SO THEY’RE PRODUCING THEIR
OWN FORM OF VITAMIN D. IT’S SLIGHTLY DIFFERENT FROM THE FORM
WE HAVE BUT WE CAN CONVERT IT. INDEED THERE ARE
SOME FOOD SOURCES, AGAIN, NOT A LOT OF OPTIONS. THERE AREN’T A LOT OF
OPTIONS OUT THERE SO IT’S VERY DIFFICULT TO
GET VITAMIN D FROM FOOD. IF YOU’RE LIVING IN THE
RIGHT AREA YOU CAN EASILY GET ENOUGH VITAMIN D FROM
THE SUN AND FROM FOOD. BUT KEEP IN MIND
IN HUMBOLDT COUNTY IT’S UNLIKELY YOU’LL GET ENOUGH. I DON’T RECOMMEND
JUST SUPPLEMENTING. I WOULD RECOMMEND
TALKING TO YOUR DOCTOR ABOUT A
VITAMIN D TEST FIRST. THEN YOU ONLY WANT TO SUPPLEMENT
WHEN THERE’S DEFICIENCY. AND THIS IS A SHORT
VIDEO BUT THIS IS THE END OF THE
SECTION ON VITAMIN D.  

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